Diabetes can define by a chronic elevation of blood sugar in the blood (blood sugar). After a meal, the sugar in food is partly transformed into glucose. It passes into the blood, and we then observe an increase in blood sugar.
In addition, to lower this blood sugar, the pancreas produces a hormone: Insulin binds to a receptor in the body’s cells and allows glucose to pass from the blood to the cells to be metabolized (used or stored).
In the case of diabetes, the regulation of blood sugar is no longer ensure either because:
Diabetes type 1 or insulin-dependent [diabetes] occurs most often in young people. This [diabetes] occurs when the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are destroyed by the body’s immune system: this is called an autoimmune disease. Insulin secretion is insufficient; regulation of blood sugar is no longer ensure.
sometimes the symptoms of type 1 [diabetes] appear suddenly. Moreover, the most common symptoms are:
Despite advances in technology and research, the causes of type 1 [diabetes] remain unknown to this day. A genetic predisposition and the environment play a role in the onset of this [diabetes].
Due to the lack of insulin production, type 1 [diabetes] can only treat with insulin intake. Solutions adapted to each patient are propose: multi-injections or insulin pumps.
Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent [diabetes] accounts for 90% of diabetes encountered worldwide. Type 2 [diabetes] usually occurs in adulthood, but it can occur in children.
In this diabetes, there is initially a blockage of the action of insulin (called insulin resistance). decreasing the storage and the use of glucose by the cells. Secondly, the production of insulin by the pancreas gradually decreases, leading to the appearance of hyperglycemia.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, the symptoms of type 2 [diabetes] often go unnoticed. Several years may pass between the onset of [diabetes] and the diagnosis of it. It is usually diagnose after the onset of complications.
Type 2 [diabetes] most often appears in sedentary people (overweight, obesity). The risk may increase if there is a family history.
If a healthy lifestyle is adopted very early, the risk may reduce.
Above all, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are the first measures to consider in this type of [diabetes]. In addition, if these measures are not sufficient, treatment with tablets or by injection may be prescribe, treatment with insulin may prove necessary with the course of the disease.
Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, usually towards the end of the Second(2) quarter. This [diabetes] affects between 2 and 6% of pregnant women.
Most often, this type of diabetes lasts only during pregnancy, but more rarely, it can reveal a [diabetes] present before pregnancy and unknown. Like diabetes, gestational diabetes is a disorder of blood sugar regulation that causes excess blood sugar.
Most often, gestational [diabetes] does not cause symptoms.
The screening can perform in pregnant women at risk during the First(1) antenatal and between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy.
At some stage in pregnancy, there is a state of insulin resistance, and the body is less sensitive to the effects of insulin, which usually regulates blood sugar.
A family predisposition, a high body mass index (BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg / m²), and an age of more than 35 years at the start of pregnancy can increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes exposes mothers and children to different risks:
macrosomia: it is the most frequent complication in gestational diabetes. It is characterize by excessive weight and growth of the fetus (large baby, more than 4 kg)
In the long term, a child born to a mother who has had gestational [diabetes] is at risk of developing metabolic complications. Monitoring of the child’s weight and / or blood pressure should be indicated;
gestational [diabetes] exposes the mother to an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and cesarean section.
Meanwhile, to avoid complications for the child and the mother, monitoring diabetes is essential.
The treatment of gestational diabetes is base on hygieno-dietetic measures: a balanced diet and appropriate physical activity.
In addition, the use of glycemic self-monitoring is essential to monitor the development of [diabetes]. If hygiene and diet measures are not sufficient to lower blood sugar, treatment with insulin may be prescribe.
There are other types of diabetes, such as MODY diabetes ( MODY [diabetes] or Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young), which occurs during a genetic defect in beta cells.
Diabetes can be triggered by another illness (cirrhosis, etc.) or by certain drugs useful for treating certain serious illnesses. The prevalence of other types of [diabetes] is very low.
On the other hand, [diabetes] is often said to be a silent disease. It sometimes appears and progresses without symptoms.
In type 2 [diabetes], symptoms often go unnoticed for several years.
In the absence of symptoms, type 2 [diabetes] can be discover incidentally during a blood test prescribed by the doctor with a blood sugar level.
Sometimes [diabetes] is suspected when symptoms related to ocular, nervous, cardiovascular, or renal complications are identified.
The Type 1 diabetes is manifest by symptoms which may appear more or less abruptly; the main symptoms are:
In addition, other symptoms may appear fatigue, vision problems, or urinary tract infections.
Resuming nocturnal urination in bed in a clean child can be a symptom of [diabetes].
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