Monkeypox Write For Us
Monkeypox Write For Us: A viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans by animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in patients with smallpox. Besides, with the suppression of smallpox in 1980 and the subsequent cessation of smallpox vaccination, it emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus.
- Monkeypox comes from the monkeypox virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae.
- And also, It is a viral zoonosis in central and western Africa’s rainforest areas and export to other regions.
- Monkeypox presents clinically with fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes.
- The monkeypox virus is transmitted primarily to people through wild animals such as rodents and primates, but person-to-person transmission also occurs.
- The virus spreads among people through contact with lesions, bodily fluids, respiratory droplets, and contaminated materials such as bedding.
- Up to one-tenth of people die with Monkeypox.
- The clinical appearance of Monkeypox resembles that of smallpox, an orthopoxvirus-related infection that was declared globally eradicated in 1980.
- The smallpox vaccine used during the smallpox eradication program also protected against Monkeypox. So, a new third-generation vaccine was approved for the prevention of smallpox and Monkeypox.
Symptoms of Monkeypox
- Firstly, the incubation period (interval from infection to the onset of symptoms) for Monkeypox is usually 6 to 13 days but can range from 5 to 21 days.
- Secondly, the invasion period (lasts between 0-5 days) is by fever, severe headache, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), back pain, myalgia (muscle aches), and lack of energy.
- Lymphadenopathy is a distinctive feature of Monkeypox that initially appears (chickenpox, measles, smallpox).
- The rash usually begins 1-3 days after the onset of fever.
- The inflammation tends to be more concentrated on the face and extremities than on the trunk.
- And also affects the face (in 95% of the cases), palms of hands, and the feet’ soles (75% of the cases).
- Oral mucosa (in 70% of cases), genitalia (30%), and conjunctiva (20%), as well as the cornea, are also affected.
- The rash progresses sequentially from macules (flat-based lesions) to papules (firm, slightly raised lesions), vesicles (lesions filled with clear fluid), pustules (lesions filled with yellowish liquid), and scabs that dry and fall off.
- Besides, the number of injuries varies from a few to several thousand. In severe cases, the lesions can coalesce until large sections of skin peel off.
Diagnosis of Monkeypox
- The clinical differential diagnosis includes other eruptive diseases, such as chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and drug-associated allergies. Lymphadenopathy during the prodromal stage of the disease may be a clinical feature to distinguish Monkeypox from chickenpox or smallpox.
- Besides, confirmation of Monkeypox depends on the type and quality of the sample and the type of laboratory test. If Monkeypox is suspected, health workers should collect an appropriate sample and transport it safely to a laboratory with adequate capacity. Therefore, pieces must be packaged and shipped by national and international requirements.
- And also, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the laboratory test of choice due to its precision and sensitivity. For this, the optimal diagnostic specimens for Monkeypox are skin lesions: the roof or fluid of vesicles and pustules and dry scabs. When possible, a biopsy is an option.
- Lesion specimens should be stored in a dry, sterile tube (without viral transport media) and kept cold. PCR blood tests are generally inconclusive due to the short duration of viremia relative to the time of specimen collection after symptoms begin.
Treatment for Monkeypox
There is currently no specific recommended treatment for Monkeypox. Several observational studies have shown that smallpox vaccination with the smallpox vaccine is approximately 85% effective in preventing Monkeypox. Therefore, prior vaccination against infant smallpox may result in a milder course of the disease.
However, at the moment, the original (first generation) smallpox vaccines are no longer available to the general public. A new vaccine for preventing smallpox and Monkeypox was approved in 2019 and is not yet widely available in the public sector.
Risk Factors of Monkeypox
Monkey Pox is a relatively rare disease. Risk factors include bites and scratches from infected animals (primarily African rodents or monkeys) or other rodents (such as prairie dogs) that have had contact with virus-infected African animals. So, people must avoid eating the meat of these animals.
Recent studies have shown that Monkeypox can infect several mammals, although the species never associate with the virus in its normal environment. Reduce or prevent the person-to-person transfer, even if it is rare, by avoiding direct physical contact with the patient and having the patient’s caregivers wear gloves and masks.
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